Car Components Technology 

How car oil is refined

Crude oil is broken down into its constituent hydrocarbons inside a fractionating column. Lighter hydrocarbons, including petrol, are tapped off high up the column while heavier ones, such as diesel, separate out lower down. Modern fuels have to be sufficiently volatile to ignite quickly, even under adverse conditions, and they have to have the correct blend of hydrocarbons to burn evenly enough to develop useful power in an internal combustion engine. The fuel must also have the right octane value to prevent pinking (detonating too early) which can cause engine…

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Car Components Technology 

Torque and BHP explained

An engine’s power is measured by running the engine against a load on a dynamometer. The braking effort needed to hold the engine at a steady speed on full throttle gives the torque. The power can then be calculated by multiplying the torque by the engine speed. An engine which produces a lot of torque over a wide range of engine speeds will be relaxing to drive because fewer gearchanges are needed: the engine’s torque is often sufficient to accelerate the car without changing down. At cruising speeds a lorquey’…

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Car Components Technology 

Dashboard technology

Top-of-the-range Audis have an electronic check system that automatically monitors various systems. When the check system detects a serious fault, such as loss of engine oil pressure, it displays the oil-pressure symbol on a red background and sounds warning chimes to alert the driver to the danger. A more minor fault, such as low washer fluid, is displayed on a yellow background to show that it is less serious. The driver can run the auto-check system by pressing the check button. If all is well, the system lights up ‘OK’….

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Car Components Technology 

Vehicle adhesives and sealants

A vast range of sealants and adhesives are available for repairing many different components in your car. Plastics, wood, rubber, glass and metals can all be repaired using adhesives. Sealants can be used to waterproof weatherseals around windows, while cracks in metal casings can be sealed with a special putty adhesive. You do not always need to replace a component that is worn, damaged or broken. There is an increasingly wide range of sealants and adhesives in car accessory shops that allow you to make satisfactory repairs, thus saving the…

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Car Components Technology 

Plastic cars

Plastics and other composite materials are in widespread use for outer panels and on occasion, complete bodyshells. Materials most likely to be used for bumpers are types of thermoplastic or polypropylene. Rigid materials like glass reinforced plastic and reinforced polyester are better for body panels. The Renault Espace uses plastic body panels mounted on a zinc-protected steel chassis frame. Plastic still has a poor image even today, being connected more with flimsy toys than the leading edge of motor industry technology. But plastics are becoming increasingly used in making cars,…

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Car Components Technology 

How ABS works

Virtually all modern cars are fitted with microprocessor-controlled anti-lock braking systems (ABS). These can react very quickly to the wheels locking, interrupting and reapplying the brakes up to 25 times a second to ensure the vehicle doesn’t skid. The best way to prevent skidding is to apply a form of braking called cadence braking. A driver who is skilled at this can usually avoid wheel lockup, but an anti-lock braking system does the job automatically and usually more efficiently. More and more cars are now being fitted with such a…

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Where plastics are used Car Components Technology 

Plastic technology occupies the important position in car

Plastic is increasingly used in manufacturing cars, but the image of the plastic is still very poor, this is mainly because in order to reduce fuel consumption and the result of greater efficiency and reduce weight. For many years the problem has been that plastics are not strong enough to be used without reinforcement. Now the scene is changing, with more complicated, composite materials taking over from simple plastics. These new materials bring changes in design and manufacturing processes but, most of all, offer greater driving economy. Plastic tyre valve…

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